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CentOS8挂载新硬盘

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创建新硬盘分区命令参数:
fdisk可以用m命令来看fdisk命令的内部命令;
a:命令指定启动分区;
d:命令删除一个存在的分区;
l:命令显示分区ID号的列表;
m:查看fdisk命令帮助;
n:命令创建一个新分区;
p:命令显示分区列表;
t:命令修改分区的类型ID号;
w:命令是将对分区表的修改存盘让它发生作用

[root@kiccleaf ~]# fdisk -l
Disk /dev/sda: 1000 GiB, 1073741824000 bytes, 2097152000 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x16aee8ac

Device     Boot   Start        End    Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/sda1  *       2048    2099199    2097152    1G 83 Linux
/dev/sda2       2099200 2097151999 2095052800  999G 8e Linux LVM


//新硬盘
Disk /dev/sdb: 1000 GiB, 1073741824000 bytes, 2097152000 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/cl-root: 50 GiB, 53687091200 bytes, 104857600 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/cl-swap: 7.9 GiB, 8468299776 bytes, 16539648 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/mapper/cl-home: 941.1 GiB, 1010508496896 bytes, 1973649408 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
[root@kiccleaf ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.32.1).
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.

Device does not contain a recognized partition table.
Created a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0xa5c1ca20.

Command (m for help): n
Partition type
   //输入p分为主分区
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   //输入e分为逻辑分区
   e   extended (container for logical partitions)
Select (default p): p
//输入该主分区为第几个主分区,由于是新盘我们输入1来分第一个主分区
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 1
 
//First sector 是选择该分区的起始扇区,直接回车
First sector (2048-2097151999, default 2048): 
//使用全部可用存储额,直接回车
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G,T,P} (2048-2097151999, default 2097151999): 

Created a new partition 1 of type 'Linux' and of size 1000 GiB.

//w保存
Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered.
Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
//mkfs.xfs命令带-f强制格式化
[root@kiccleaf ~]# mkfs.xfs -f /dev/sdb1
meta-data=/dev/sdb1              isize=512    agcount=4, agsize=65535936 blks
         =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1
         =                       crc=1        finobt=1, sparse=1, rmapbt=0
         =                       reflink=1
data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=262143744, imaxpct=25
         =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0, ftype=1
log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=127999, version=2
         =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
//用命令blkid 查看一下已是xfs格式
[root@kiccleaf data]# blkid /dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb1: UUID="813681bd-a154-43d8-88dc-27750eacfcc1" TYPE="xfs" PARTUUID="a5c1ca20-01"
//创建挂载目录
[root@kiccleaf ~]# mkdir /data
//mount直接挂载硬盘至data
[root@kiccleaf ~]# mount /dev/sdb1 /data
//查看一下挂载的硬盘data已经有了
[root@kiccleaf ~]# df -h
Filesystem           Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
devtmpfs             3.8G     0  3.8G   0% /dev
tmpfs                3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                3.9G  9.0M  3.8G   1% /run
tmpfs                3.9G     0  3.9G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/cl-root   50G  6.3G   44G  13% /
/dev/mapper/cl-home  941G  6.7G  935G   1% /home
/dev/sda1            976M  198M  711M  22% /boot
tmpfs                779M     0  779M   0% /run/user/0
/dev/sdb1            984G   77M  934G   1% /data
//系统重启自动挂载该分区对fstab进行编辑
[root@kiccleaf ~]# vim /etc/fstab

系统重启自动挂载该分区可修改/etc/fstab文件,在最后加入添加:/dev/sdb1 /data xfs defaults 0 0

格式说明:/dev/sdb1 代表哪个分区, /data是挂载目录, xfs是该分区的格式,defaults 是挂载时所要设定的参数(只读,读写,启用quota等),输入defaults包括的参数有(rw、dev、exec、auto、nouser、async) ,1是使用dump是否要记录,0是不要。 2是开机时检查的顺序,是boot系统文件就为1,其他文件系统都为2,如不要检查就为0

# 
# /etc/fstab
# Created by anaconda on Fri Sep  4 12:04:04 2020
#
# Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk/'.
# See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info.
#
# After editing this file, run 'systemctl daemon-reload' to update systemd
# units generated from this file.
#
/dev/mapper/cl-root     /                       xfs     defaults        0 0
UUID=86a7eaa3-61db-49cd-be3d-54b724f24878 /boot                   ext4    defaults        1 2
/dev/mapper/cl-home     /home                   xfs     defaults        0 0
/dev/mapper/cl-swap     swap                    swap    defaults        0 0
/dev/sdb1 /data                                 xfs    defaults        0 0

xfs格式是一种非常优秀的日志文件系统,它是SGI公司设计的。xfs被称为业界最先进的、最具可升级性的文件系统技术,xfs是一个64位文件系统,最大支持8EB减1字节的单个文件系统,实际部署时取决于宿主操作系统的最大块限制。对于一个32位Linux系统,文件和文件系统的大小会被限制在16TB
xfs在很多方面确实做的比ext4好,ext4受限制于磁盘结构和兼容问题,可扩展性和scalability确实不如xfs。具体详细的区别请自行了解,采用df -T 命令查看系统硬盘的格式

[root@kiccleaf ~]# df -T
Filesystem          Type      1K-blocks    Used  Available Use% Mounted on
devtmpfs            devtmpfs    3968364       0    3968364   0% /dev
tmpfs               tmpfs       3985404       0    3985404   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs               tmpfs       3985404    9176    3976228   1% /run
tmpfs               tmpfs       3985404       0    3985404   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/mapper/cl-root xfs        52403200 6583040   45820160  13% /
/dev/sdb1           xfs      1048062980 7340272 1040722708   1% /data
/dev/sda1           ext4         999320  202436     728072  22% /boot
/dev/mapper/cl-home xfs       986342856 6965148  979377708   1% /home
tmpfs               tmpfs        797080       0     797080   0% /run/user/0
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